gm.obsculta-music.at
Information

Aphids on ginger plant indoors

Aphids on ginger plant indoors



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Aphids on ginger plant indoors {#sec2-1}

-------------------------------

*O. ostertagi* is one of the most important pathogenic nematodes of sheep worldwide, and it is characterized as an obligate endoparasite that utilizes epidermal cells of the animal gut to attach and complete its life cycle ([@B15]). In the Mediterranean region, *O. ostertagi* is endemic on large ruminants ([@B28]) and is estimated to affect the global dairy and meat industries in the near future. These nematodes infect grazing ruminants, resulting in mortality, weight loss, and sub-clinical parasitism ([@B30]). This nematode's transmission relies on obligate life-stages, such as the infective larval form (L3), with females capable of producing copious numbers of eggs within the plant root environment ([@B15]).

In the GIT of sheep, the adults of *O. ostertagi* are embedded and live in the pseudostratified mucosa of the small intestine, and eggs are released in the mucosa through mechanical damage to the gut caused by grazing ([@B15]). As soon as larvae from the eggs have reached the environment, they locate plant roots and invade the cells of the cortical parenchyma of the roots. Once the larvae have burrowed the epidermal tissue to reach the cortex, the root penetrates the root tissue and travels through the vasculature. Then, as the infection progresses, it migrates into the vascular parenchyma of the xylem, where it enters the xylem vessels, and sometimes the phloem, and finally, migrates to the xylem tissue, where it continues developing ([@B12]).

In this study, morphological changes in roots of 8-week-old plants were characterized, such as an increase in the total area of the phloem tissue in transgenic *nptII* (TSP) plants after the aphid infestation compared to the uninfested group. In the xylem tissues of transgenic plants, in the TSP plants, after the aphid infestation, changes in the phloem cell architecture were observed (results not shown), whereas in the uninfested group, this area remained unchanged. In the transgenic plants, it was observed that in the xylem tissue of aphid-infested plants, changes in cell characteristics, such as swelling, were observed. Changes in cell structure of xylem and phloem cells were also observed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) in the TSP plants ([Fig. 1A](#F1){ref-type="fig"}--[C](#F1){ref-type="fig"}). It has been reported that the amount of ingested protein increases with feeding in aphids, and a major contribution is from a large proportion of amino acids that is ingested in the form of proteins and lipids in the diet, and protein is the most common component of aphid saliva ([@B30]). Some studies have reported that there is a direct relation between aphid feeding and phloem cell degradation ([@B1], [@B19]). In this work, aphids were induced to bite on the ginger roots after the infestation of these insects on *O. ostertagi*-infected plants, and it was determined that aphids could find and establish their inoculation site on the roots of TSP plants, by damaging the epidermal cells of the root system. In contrast, in uninfested roots, the aphids could not travel as far as the phloem vessels ([Fig. 2](#F2){ref-type="fig"}).

![**A)** Morphological changes in xylem cells (X) induced by aphids. H, xylem cells in uninfected plants, 4× magnification. **B)** Morphological changes in xylem cells (X) induced by aphids. H, xylem cells in uninfected plants, 4× magnification. **C)** Morphological changes in xylem cells (X) induced by aphids. 4× magnification. (E, epidermal cells, LV, xylem vessel, PC, phloem cell, S, sieve element).](jast-61-4-393-g1){#F1}

![**A)** Morphological changes in phloem cells (P) induced by aphids. H, phloem cell in uninfected plants, 4× magnification. **B)** Morphological changes in phloem cells (P) induced by aphids. H, phloem cell in uninfected plants, 4× magnification. (EP, epidermal cell, P, phloem cell, S, sieve element).](jast-61-4-393-g2){#F2}

Also, the damage induced by aphids was more significant when the TSP plants were infested. Changes in the anatomical structure of the xylem vessels were observed when the aphids attacked the TSP plants and caused the total collapse of the vessels ([Fig. 3](#F3){ref-type="fig"}). Changes in the vascular tissue also occurred with aphids in the uninfested group, and these structures had an overall gray appearance in these plants ([Fig. 3](#F3){ref-type="fig"}).

![**A)** Morphological changes in xylem cells (X) induced by aphids. H, xylem cells in uninfected plants, 4× magnification. **B)** Morphological changes in xylem cells (X) induced by aphids. H, xylem cells in uninfected plants, 4× magnification. (E, epidermal cell, LV, xylem vessel, PC, phloem cell, S, sieve element).](jast-61-4-393-g3){#F3}

Aphids were observed entering through the epidermal root