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Alyssum: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open field

Alyssum: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open field



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Garden plants

Alyssum is a graceful plant with small flowers, which appeared in our gardens and parks not so long ago, but its indisputable advantages allow us to hope that the popularity of alyssum will grow every year.
What is alissum good for? It is frost-hardy, beautiful, blooms profusely, and if you take care of it correctly, you can achieve a second wave of flowering per season.

In our article, you will find information that will help you:

  • understand the types of plants;
  • grow seedlings of alissum;
  • plant her in a flower garden;
  • properly care for the plant during the season;
  • collect seeds;
  • prepare alyssum for wintering.

Planting and caring for alyssum

  • Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - in early May or November; sowing seeds for seedlings - in March-April, planting seedlings in the garden - in late May or early June.
  • Bloom: from May to late autumn.
  • Lighting: bright light or partial shade.
  • The soil: light, dryish, well-fertilized and drained soils / neutral or alkaline.
  • Watering: regular, moderate, in drought - abundant.
  • Top dressing: from the beginning of the growing season, the plant needs nitrogen fertilizers, and before flowering, a full mineral complex. Annuals are fed up to 4 times per season, perennials, if the first feeding is applied before flowering - 5 times.
  • Cropping: after summer flowering, the shoots are shortened by 5-7 cm.
  • Reproduction: seeds, cuttings and dividing the bush.
  • Pests: cruciferous fleas, caterpillars, cabbage moths, whites.
  • Diseases: late blight, powdery mildew, peronosporosis and viral mosaic.
  • Properties: some types of alissum are medicinal plants.

Read more about growing alissum below.

Plant alissum (lat.Alyssum), or beetroot, or lobularia marine, belongs to the genus of the Cabbage family (formerly Crucifers) and includes about 100 plant species native to North Africa, Asia and Europe. The word "alissum" is a Latinization of the Greek word "alisson": "a" means "without" - negation, "lyssa" in translation means "canine rabies". That is, obviously, in ancient times, alissum flowers were somehow used in the treatment of rabies. In the garden culture, the alyssum flower became known not so long ago, but its popularity is growing every year, and the reason for this, in addition to simplicity and ease of care, is the strong honey aroma that the plant exudes.

Botanical description

Alyssum is a dwarf plant, ground cover, reaching a height of 15 to 40 cm. On strongly branching semi-lignified shoots at the base, small pubescent oblong or obovate leaves. The flowers are small, white, yellow, lilac, pink, red or purple, collected in small brushes, bloom in May and fade in late autumn. The fruit is a pod with seeds that remain viable for up to three years. Alyssum is a honey plant that attracts bees with its spicy honey aroma.

Strictly speaking, sea lobularia and alyssum are not the same plant, but they are close relatives and are so similar that flower growers, for simplicity, unite them into one genus.

The difference is determined simply: in Alyssum, the flowers are pale yellow or yellow, and in the Lobularia, they are white, lilac or pink.

In culture, both perennial alissum and annual alissum are grown. The plant is used for growing in flower beds, flower beds and flowerpots. Often it is planted to mask the places that are empty after the fading spring bulbs.

Growing alissum from seeds

How to sow seeds

If you do not know how to grow alissum from seeds, we are ready to share our experience with you. Growing alyssum by seed method involves two options - seedling and seedless. How to plant alyssum seeds in a reckless way? Sowing alyssum in the ground is carried out at the beginning of May to a depth of 1.5 cm, and when shoots appear in a continuous carpet, they are thinned out. But in the case of spring sowing of alissum, flowering will be belated. You can sow seeds in November - during the winter they will undergo natural stratification, and in the spring you will get strong healthy seedlings that will bloom in time.

In the photo: Blooming white alyssum

Seedling care

But many growers still prefer the seedling method of reproduction, and not in vain - it is safer and rarely brings unpleasant surprises. Before sowing alissum for seedlings in March-April, purchase a light nutritious soil with a small content of lime (pH 5.5-6.2) and place it in a seedling box, then spread the seeds on the surface of the soil, not too thickly and lightly sprinkle them with the same soil mixture, although you can not do this, but simply press the seeds to the surface. If you create good lighting for crops, greenhouse conditions, covering them with glass or film, temperature regime within 10-15 ºC with moderate moisture and ventilation, seed germination can be expected in a week, or even earlier.

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As soon as the seedlings have the first true leaf, feed them with complex fertilizer. Before diving seedlings in separate pots, wait until 2-3 true leaves appear, although if the seedlings grow quickly, the alissum picking may not be necessary, and the seedlings can be planted directly into the ground.

Planting alyssum in open ground

When to plant

Alyssum flowers are planted in open ground in late May or early June, when return frosts are no longer terrible. The site is chosen sunny, the soil for alissum is preferably dry, well-drained, rich in humus, neutral reaction, although slightly alkaline and slightly acidic will do. Alyssum grows beautifully between plates or stones heated by the sun.

How to plant

Planting alyssum in the ground is carried out taking into account the fact that these flowers grow rapidly in breadth, that is, they need to be planted at a distance of about 40 cm from each other, although it all depends on the type and variety of alyssum. The pits should be slightly larger than the rhizome with an earthen lump; when planting, the plants are not deeply buried, and immediately after planting they are watered abundantly. When planted in a flower bed, overgrown bushes can be divided and planted as independent plants. Alyssum blooms from seeds 6-7 weeks after germination.

In the photo: Growing alyssum

Alyssum care

Growing conditions

As you can see, planting an alissum is simple and takes five minutes. It is just as simple to care for it, and it consists in watering the plant, loosening the soil, removing weeds from the site, pruning and feeding alissum.

Watering the plant needs a regular one, and in a dry season it is abundant, otherwise, from a lack of moisture, it can throw off flowers and buds. But abundant watering is possible only with good water permeability of the soil, otherwise, from stagnant moisture in the roots, the alissum will get wet and disappear.

How do you know when it's time to water the alissum? Dig the soil 3-4 cm deep with a shovel, and if it is dry, water it boldly.

After watering, you can easily remove the weeds that have appeared and loosen the soil between the alissum bushes, but if in the spring after planting you mutilated area, then you will have to water and weed much less often, however, loosening and in the presence of mulch is an important component of caring for alyssum, since it ensures the water and air permeability of the soil.

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Concerning fertilizers, then during the growth of green mass, perennial alissum is fed with nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of one tablespoon of Agricola-7 and urea per 10 liters of water, and before flowering, add complex fertilizer to the soil. Annual species need more frequent feeding - about four times per season, provided that the first time fertilization is applied before flowering. Top dressing with the required frequency and in sufficient volume is a guarantee of flowering of annual alissums "for an encore".

In the photo: Purple Alyssum

Pruning alyssum

Timely and correct pruning is very important for full-fledged growth and abundant flowering of alyssum. In the spring, remove last year's flower stalks, dried leaves and weak, diseased shoots from perennial alissums. After the summer bloom, repeat the same pruning, and also shorten all the shoots of the plant by 5-8 cm, and this will serve as an incentive for the alissum to bloom again. In addition, the bushes that have grown over the summer look somewhat sloppy, and pruning will give them a compact and well-groomed appearance.

Pests and diseases

The most dangerous pest for alyssum is the cruciferous flea, which is difficult to lime unless you resort to treating the plant with a solution of one tablespoon of vinegar essence in 10 liters of water, but only adult, strong plants can be treated.

Dangerous for alissum also caterpillars, but treating the bushes with an infusion of chamomile or tobacco with soap will help to remove them.

Harm the boletus cabbage moths and whites, which are destroyed with Entobacterin or Lepidocide.

In the photo: Blooming yellow alyssum

With chronic waterlogging or insufficient water permeability of the soil, alyssum may develop brown rot - late blight, which affects the underground part and the root collar of the plant. In this case, try to carry out the treatment with copper oxychloride or fungicides - Ordan, Thanos or Cuproxat.

Alyssum infection with viral mosaic or powdery mildew (real or false) can occur. Powdery mildew is destroyed by treatment with Bordeaux liquid or Topaz. And downy mildew - oxychom, ordan and Bordeaux mixture. The viral mosaic is not cured.

Alyssum after flowering

How and when to collect seeds

You can start collecting seeds in late September or early October. To do this, on a dry, windless day, spread an old blanket in the yard and rub the alissum inflorescences over it with your hands. Large debris is then removed, and small ones will not bother you. Dry the seeds in a dry place with good ventilation, but no drafts, and store in a cloth bag until spring. If you are late and the seeds are crumbling, take a broom and, lifting the branches of alyssum, sweep the seeds from under the bushes, clean them of debris and earth and store them, as mentioned above.

In the photo: Alyssum in a flowerbed

Perennial alissum in winter

It must be said that the frost resistance of alyssum is not unlimited - the plant will not survive the cold below 15 ºC. But if your winters are not so harsh, sprinkle the plant with dry foliage, and when it snows, throw a snowdrift over the alissum, and the plant will overwinter normally, keeping green leaves on the bush. Pruning alyssum before wintering is not recommended, the one that you made after the end of flowering is enough, especially since in the spring another haircut will have to be done by the alissum.

Types and varieties

Alyssum rocky (Alyssum saxatile)

Strongly branched perennial up to 30 cm tall, growing in hemispherical bushes up to 40 cm in diameter. Its branched stems are lignified at the base. Inversely ovate or oblong, gray-gray, felt-like leaves, remaining on the bush even in winter, form dense rosettes. Small yellow flowers with notched petals are collected in dense, short brushes. Blooms in spring for about forty days, possibly re-blooming in late summer. Varieties:

  • Citrinum - lemon yellow alyssum of short stature;
  • Compactum - a fragrant variety only 18 cm high with small flowers;
  • Golden wave - yellow alyssum up to 20 cm high, blooming only at the age of two years;
  • The plenum - golden alissum, terry, bush height up to 30 cm.

In the photo: Alyssum saxatile

Alyssum sea (Alyssum maritimum)

He is also lobularia sea - perennial, but only in warm climates, a plant from 8 to 40 cm high, abundantly overgrown with branches creeping on the ground, forming fluffy bushes with small, fleshy, silvery oval leaves with fine pubescence. The flowers are also medium-sized, with a honey aroma, collected in a brush. In nature, there are varieties of a white or lilac shade, but many varieties have been bred in culture with pink, purple and red flowers that bloom from spring to autumn. Varieties:

  • Tiny Tim - alyssum white, dwarf, eight centimeters tall, blooming so profusely that neither stems nor leaves are visible. Excellent ground cover plant;
  • Easter Bonnet Deep Rose - Alyssum pink intense shade, blooms profusely;
  • Princess in Purple - Alyssum ampelous, looking great in hanging pots or flowerpots, with spreading shoots up to 35 cm long and fragrant light lilac flowers;
  • Violet Konigin - violet alyssum, compact, densely branched, 10-15 cm high.

In the photo: Alyssum maritimum

Alyssum gmelinii (Alyssum gmelinii)

Or mountain alissum (alyssum montanum) - This is a frost-resistant perennial 10-20 cm high with ascending and creeping stems and leaves densely pubescent with star-shaped hairs, which makes them appear gray. Yellow flowers, collected in a cluster, bloom in April or May.

In addition to the above, there are such representatives of the Alyssum genus, such as Lena, winding, Savran, rough, cup, Pyrenean, creeping and silver.

In the photo: Mountain Alyssum (alyssum montanum)

In recent years, breeders, given the popularity of alissum, have bred wonderful varieties, among which are especially popular:

  • Palette - miniature bushes no more than ten centimeters of the richest palette of colors - white, pink, red, raspberry, lilac and even brown. In specialized stores, a mixture of Alyssum Paulette seeds of different colors is sold, they are planted so to get a motley flower bed or lawn, covered with a multi-colored lush carpet;
  • Big Jam - large-flowered alissum, whose flowers are one and a half times larger than usual, the color range is also wide - lavender, purple, white and light lilac. The plant is up to 35 cm high, has increased resistance to drought and cold - flowering continues even at -3ºC;
  • Gold placer - grows as a spherical bush, the leaves are narrow, the stems almost lie on the ground, the bright yellow flowers are collected in small dense brushes. Most of all, this variety is suitable for rocky slides and for decorating retaining walls;
  • White carpet - differs in long and abundant flowering of white inflorescences. It is used most often as a ground cover plant;
  • Pink rug - densely branched bushes up to 12 cm high with small gray pubescent leaves and medium-sized fragrant flowers of pink-lilac color, collected in racemose inflorescences - most often this species is used as an ampelous plant for balconies or as a frame for flower beds and flower beds.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Information about Garden Plants
  6. Information on Perennial Plants
  7. Information about Herbaceous plants
  8. Information about Annual Plants
  9. Information about the Shrub

Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Flowering Annuals Semi-shrubs Honey plants Plants on A Groundcover


Alyssum (beetroot): grown from seeds.

A flower garden that requires minimal maintenance and at the same time retains exceptional decorativeness is the dream of many flower growers. Having picked up unpretentious, abundantly flowering plants, you can easily turn this dream into reality.

The assortment of annual and perennial flowers, resistant to adverse conditions, is quite wide - these are verbena and snapdragons, Drummond's phlox and escholzia.

But one of the first places on this list is occupied by alyssum. It takes 6 to 8 weeks to grow full seedlings from seeds. Already in May, this beautiful ground cover plant can be planted on an alpine slide, balcony, flower bed, among stone slabs and on retaining walls of dry masonry.

Alyssum is often used to create picturesque spots, it is planted in mixed groups next to shaved, dwarf irises, tulips.

The cold-resistant plant tolerates frosts down to -10 ° C. A light cloud of white, lilac, pink flowers exudes a honey aroma that attracts bees and other beneficial insects to the site.

More than a hundred species of alyssum are known, but only a few of them are most often found in gardens.


Climatic conditions for alyssum

Annuals are distinguished by long flowering, and perennials are resistant to low temperatures. The climate for the unpretentious Alyssum is both warm and harsh.

There are species that adapt well in the northern regions; Alyssum seedlings are planted there. In warm climates, seeds are sown directly into the ground and the plant pleases with a flowering species more than once a season.


Diseases and pests of alyssum

With high humidity, alyssum suffers from brown rot. The disease affects the shoots and the root collar. A whitish coating may appear on the leaves and flowers - powdery mildew. When the first signs of disease appear, the flower bed is sprayed with copper-based preparations: Ordan, Thanos, Bordeaux liquid. In case of a serious damage to the landing, it is impossible to save them, they have to be destroyed.

When growing alissum, the appearance of pests is possible: cruciferous flea beetles, cabbage moths, whites, caterpillars. To combat them, plants are sprayed with Spark or Lepidocide preparations. For prophylaxis, treatment is carried out every 2 weeks.


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